• 1. Absolute Value  A number’s distance from zero on the number line.

2. Additive Inverse           The opposite of a number (i.e., for any number a, the additive inverse is - a).

3. Arithmetic Sequence  An ordered list of numbers that increases or decreases at a constant rate (i.e., the difference between numbers remains the same).

4. Asymptote A straight line to which the curve of a graph comes closer and closer.

5. Bar Graph A graph that shows a set of frequencies using bars of equal width, but heights that are proportional to the frequencies.

6. Binomial   A polynomial with two unlike terms (e.g., 3x + 4y or a3  4b2).

7. Box-and-Whisker Plot         A graphic method for showing a summary and distribution of data using median, quartiles, and extremes (i.e., minimum and maximum) of data.

8. Circle Graph (or Pie Chart)       A circular diagram using different-sized sectors of a circle whose angles at the center are proportional to the frequency.

9. Coefficient       The number, usually a constant, that is multiplied by a variable in a term (e.g., 35 is the coefficient of 35x2y); the absence of a coefficient is the same as a 1 being present (e.g., x is the same as 1x).

10. Combination    An unordered arrangement, listing or selection of objects (e.g., two-letter combinations of the three letters X, Y, and Z would be XY, XZ, and YZ; XY is the same as YX and is not counted as a different combination).

11. Common Logarithm   A logarithm with base 10.

12. Complex Number        The sum or difference of a real number and an imaginary number. It is written in the form a + bi.

13. Composite Number     Any natural number with more than two factors (e.g., 6 is a composite number since it has four factors: 1, 2, 3, and 6).

14. Compound (or Combined) Event   An event that is made up of two or more simple events, such as the flipping of two or more coins.

15. Compound Inequality When two or more inequalities are taken together and written with the inequalities connected by the words and or or (e.g., x > 6 and x < 12, which can also be written as 6 < x < 12).

17. Constant   A term or expression with no variable in it. It has the same value all the time.

18. Coordinate Plane        A plane formed by perpendicular number lines. The horizontal number line is the x-axis, and the vertical number line is the y-axis.

19. Cube Root One of three equal factors (roots) of a number or expression; a radical expression with a degree of 3.

20. Degree (of a Polynomial)    The value of the greatest exponent in a polynomial.

21. Dependent Events       Two or more events in which the outcome of one event affects or influences the outcome of the other event(s).

22. Dependent Variable    The output number or variable in a relation or function that depends upon another variable, called the independent variable, or input number (e.g., in the equation y = 2x + 4, y is the dependent variable since its value depends on the value of x.

#### 23. Domain (of a Relation or Function) Theset of all possible values of the independent variable on which a function or relation is allowed to operate. Also, the first numbers in the ordered pairs of a relation; the values of the x-coordinates in (x, y).

24. Equation   A mathematical statement or sentence that says one mathematical expression or quantity is equal to another (e.g., x + 5 = y 7).

25. Estimation Strategy    An approximation based on a judgment; may include determining approximate values, establishing the reasonableness of answers, assessing the amount of error resulting from estimation, and/or determining if an error is within acceptable limits.

26. Exponent   The power to which a number or expression is raised.

27. Exponential Equation An equation with variables in its exponents (e.g., 4x = 50).

28. Exponential Expression       An expression in which the variable occurs in the exponent (such as 4x rather than x4).

#### 29. Exponential Function (or Model)

A function whose general equation is y = a bx where a and b are constants.

30. Exponential Growth/Decay A situation where a quantity increases or decreases exponentially by the same factor over time; it is used for such phenomena as inflation, population growth, radioactivity or depreciation.

31. Expression        A mathematical phrase that includes operations, numbers, and/or variables.

32. Factor (noun)   The number or expression that is multiplied by another to get a product.

33. Factor (verb)     To express or write a number, monomial, or polynomial as a product of two or more factors.

34. Factor a Monomial      To express a monomial as the product of two or more monomials.

35. Factor a Polynomial    To express a polynomial as the product of monomials and/or polynomials.

36. Frequency How often something occurs.

37. Function   A relation in which each value of an independent variable is associated with a unique value of a dependent variable.

#### 38. Fundamental Counting Principle

A way to calculate all of the possible combinations of a given number of events.

39. Geometric Sequence  An ordered list of numbers that has the same ratio between consecutive terms.

#### 40. Greatest Common Factor (GCF) The largest factor that two or more numbers or algebraic terms have in common.

41. Imaginary Number     The square root of a negative number, or the opposite of the square root of a negative number.

42. Independent Event(s)  Two or more events in which the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event(s).

43. Independent Variable The input number or variable in a relation or function whose value is subject to choice.

44. Inequality A mathematical sentence that contains an inequality symbol (i.e., >, <, ≥, ≤, or ≠)..

45. Integer    A natural number, the additive inverse of a natural number, or zero.

46. Interquartile Range (of Data)      The difference between the first (lower) and third (upper) quartile.

47. Inverse (of a Relation)         A relation in which the coordinates in each ordered pair are switched from a given relation.

48. Irrational Number       A real number that cannot be written as a simple fraction (i.e., the ratio of two integers). It is a non- terminating (infinite) and non-repeating decimal.

#### 49. Least (or Lowest) Common Multiple (LCM)

The smallest number or expression that is a common multiple of two or more numbers or algebraic terms, other than zero.

50. Like Terms      Monomials that contain the same variables and corresponding powers and/or roots. Only the coefficients can be different (e.g., 4x3 and 12x3).

51. Line Graph       A graph that uses a line or line segments to connect data points, plotted on a coordinate plane, usually to show trends or changes in data over time.

#### 52. Line or Curve of Best Fit (for a Scatter Plot)

A line or curve drawn on a scatter plot to best estimate the relationship between two sets of data.

53. Linear Combination   A method by which a system of linear equations can be solved. May also be called the Elimination Method

54. Linear Equation          An equation for which the graph is a straight.

55. Linear Function          A function for which the graph is a non-vertical straight line.

56. Linear Inequality:       The relation of two expressions using the symbols <, >, ≤, ≥, or and whose boundary is a straight line.

57. Logarithm The exponent required to produce a given number.

58. Logarithmic Equation An equation which contains a logarithm of a variable or number.

59. Mapping The matching or pairing of one set of numbers to another by use of a rule.

60. Maximum Value (of a Graph)     The value of the dependent variable for the highest point on the graph of a curve.

Mean        A measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the values of a set of data and dividing that sum by the total number of values.

#### Measure of Central Tendency

A measure of location of the middle (center) of a distribution of a set of data (i.e., how data clusters).

Measure of Dispersion        A measure of the way in which the distribution of a set of data is spread out.

Median   A measure of central tendency that is the middle value in an ordered set of data or the average of the two middle values when the set has two middle values.

Minimum Value (of a Graph)      The value of the dependent variable for the lowest point on the graph of a curve.

Mode        A measure of central tendency that is the value or values that occur(s) most often in a set of data.

Monomial A polynomial with only one term; it contains no addition or subtraction.

Multiplicative Inverse         The reciprocal of a number.

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Mutually Exclusive Events  Two events that cannot occur at the same time (i.e., events that have no outcomes in common).

Natural Logarithm      A logarithm with base e

Natural Number          A counting number. A number representing a positive, whole amount.

Negative Exponent      An exponent that indicates a reciprocal that has to be taken before the exponent can be applied.

Number Line   A graduated straight line that represents the set of all real numbers in order.

Odds A comparison, in ratio form (as a fraction or with a colon), of outcomes.

Order of Operations   Rules describing what order to use in evaluating expressions.

Ordered Pair    A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane, or the solution of an equation in two variables.

Origin    The point (0, 0) on a coordinate plane. It is the point of intersection for the x-axis and the y-axis.

Outlier   A value that is much greater or much less than the rest of the data.

Pattern (or Sequence)         A set of numbers arranged in order (or in a sequence).

Perfect Square A number whose square root is a whole number.

Permutation     An ordered arrangement of objects from a given set in which the order of the objects is significant (e.g., two-letter permutations of the three letters X, Y, and Z would be XY, YX, XZ, ZX, YZ, and ZY).

#### Point-Slope Form (of a Linear Equation)

An equation of a straight, non-vertical line written in the form y y1 = m(x x1), where m is the slope of the line and (x1, y1) is a given point on the line.

Polynomial       An algebraic expression that is a monomial or the sum or difference of two or more monomials.

Polynomial Function  A function of the form f(x) = anxn + an–1xn–1 + + a1x + a0, where an  0 and natural number n is the degree of the polynomial.

Positive Exponent        Indicates how many times a base number is multiplied by itself.

Power      The value of the exponent in a term.

Power of a Power         An expression of the form (am)n.

Powers of Products      An expression of the form am an.

Prime Number Any natural number with exactly two factors,

Probability       A number from 0 to 1 (or 0% to 100%) that indicates how likely an event is to happen.

#### Probability of a Compound (or Combined) Event

The union of two events A and B occurring or the intersection of two events A and B occurring.

Quadrants The four regions of a coordinate plane that are separated by the x-axis and the y-axis.

Quadratic Equation    An equation that can be written in the standard form a2+ bx + c = 0, where a, b, and c are real numbers and a does not equal zero.

Quadratic Formula     The solutions or roots of a quadratic equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a 0, are given by the formula Quadratic Function             A function that can be expressed in the form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a 0 and the highest power of the variable is 2.

Quartile One of three values that divides a set of data into four equal parts.

#### Range (of a Relation or Function) The set of all possible values for the output (dependent variable) of a function or relation; the set of second numbers in the ordered pairs of a function or relation; the values of the y-coordinates in (x, y).

Range (of Data) In statistics, a measure of dispersion that is the difference between the greatest value (maximum value) and the least value (minimum value) in a set of data.

Rate     A ratio that compares two quantities having different units

Rate (of Change)         The amount a quantity changes over time (e.g., 3.2 cm per year). Also the amount a function’s output changes (increases or decreases) for each unit of change in the input.

Rate (of Interest)         The percent by which a monetary account accrues interest.

Ratio A comparison of two numbers, quantities or expressions by division.

Rational Expression    An expression that can be written as a polynomial divided by a polynomial, defined only when the latter is not equal to zero.

Rational Number        Any number that can be written in the form , where a is any integer and b is any integer except zero.

Regression Curve        The line or curve of best fit that represents the least deviation from the points in a scatter plot of data.

Relation    A set of pairs of values (e.g., {(1, 2), (2, 3) (3, 2)}).

Real Number   The combined set of rational and irrational numbers. All numbers on the number line. Not an imaginary number. Repeating Decimal     A decimal with one or more digits that repeats endlessly (e.g., 0.666…, 0.727272…, 0.08333…).

Rise  The vertical (up and down) change or difference between any two points on a line on a coordinate plane.

Run  The horizontal (left and right) change or difference between any two points on a line on a coordinate plane.

Scatter Plot      A graph that shows the “general” relationship between two sets of data.

Simple Event   When an event consists of a single outcome (e.g., rolling a number cube).

#### Simplest Form (of an Expression) When all like terms are combined. The form which no longer contains any like terms, parentheses, or reducible fractions.

Simplify To write an expression in its simplest form.

Slope (of a Line)          A rate of change. The measurement of the steepness, incline, or grade of a line from left to right. It is the ratio of vertical change to horizontal change. .

Slope-Intercept Form An equation of a straight, non-vertical line written in the form y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.

Square Root     One of two equal factors (roots) of a number or expression; a radical expression with an understood degree of 2.

#### Standard Form (of a Linear Equation) An equation of a straight line written in the form Ax + By = C, where A, B, and C are real numbers and where A and B are not both zero.

Stem-and-Leaf Plot     A visual way to display the shape of a distribution that shows groups of data arranged by place value; a way to show the frequency with which certain classes of data occur.

Substitution The replacement of a term or variable in an expression or equation by another that has the same value in order to simplify or evaluate the expression or equation.

System of Linear Equations      A set of two or more linear equations with the same variables.

#### System of LinearInequalities

Two or more linear inequalities with the same variables.

Systems of Equations A set of two or more equations containing a set of common variables.

Term        A part of an algebraic expression. They are separated by either an addition symbol (+) or a subtraction symbol (–). It can be a number, a variable, or a product of a number and one or more variables.

Terminating Decimal A decimal with a finite number of digits.

Trinomial A polynomial with three unlike terms.

Unit Rate   A rate in which the second (independent) quantity of the ratio is 1.

Variable A letter or symbol used to represent any one of a given set of numbers or other objects.

Whole Number      A natural number or zero

x-Axis     The horizontal number line on a coordinate plane.

x-  Intercept(s)      The x-coordinate(s) of the point(s) at which the graph of an equation crosses the x-axis.

y-  Axis    The vertical number line on a coordinate plane.

y-Intercept(s) The y-coordinate(s) of the point(s) at which the graph of an equation crosses the y- axis.