• Keystone Vocabulary - Set #1

    1.) BIOLOGY - The study of scientific life

    2.) EUKARYOTE - A type of organism containing a membrane-bound nucleus and specialized organelles in the cytoplasm

    3.) PROKARYOTE - An organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and specialized organelles

    4.) UNICELLULAR - An organism consisting of one cell

    5.) MULTICELLULAR - An organism consisting of more than one cell


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #2

    6.) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION - Two cells fusing to produce offspring with different traits than their parents

    7.) ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION - One cell produces identical offspring

    8.) EVOLUTION - The gradual change of a population over time

    9.) DNA - A macromolcule that stores and transmits genetic information

    10.) ENERGY - The ability to do work


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #3

    11.) TISSUE - A group of cells performing a similar function

    12.) ORGANS - A group of tissues performing a common function

    13.) ORGAN SYSTEM - A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or task

    14.) ORGANISM - A form of life; an animal, plant, fungus, protist, or bacteria

    15.) CELL - The basic unit of structure and function for all living organisms


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #4

    16.) GOLGI APPARATUS - The organelle responsible for modifying and packaging proteins for release by the cell

    17.) MITOCHONDRION - The organelle found in most eukaryotic cells; site of cellular respiration that produces ATP

    18.) NUCLEUS - The organelle in eukaryotic cells that houses DNA that controls and regulates cellular activities

    19.) CHLOROPLAST - Organelles containing chlorophyll commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for making food

    20.) RIBOSOME - The organelle that is the site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokarytoic cells


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #5

    21.) HYDROGEN BONDS - The type of bond that creates the unique properties of water (e.g. adhesion, cohesion, and specific heat)

    22.) COHESION - The attraction between like molecules. Surface tension results from this property of water 

    23.) POLAR - A molecule that has a slightly negative and positive end. Water has this property

    24.) DENSITY - Mass / Volume. This property allows ice to float on top of water

    25.) UNIVERSAL SOLVENT - The property of water that allows it to dissolve almost any substancce 


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #6

    26.) MONOMER - These small units bond together to form a larger polymer.

    27.) HYDROLYSIS - The break down of a polymer into monomers by adding water.

    28.) DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS - The building of a polymer by removing water from monomers.

    29.) POLYMER - A large molecule made of two or more monomers.

    30.) ORGANIC MACROMOLECULE - A group of molecules (containing carbon and hydrogen) that interact with biological systems and their environments.


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #7

    31.) CARBOHYDRATE - A macromolecule that contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio and serves a major source of energy for living organisms (e.g. sugar, starch, and cellulose).

    32.) LIPIDS - A macromolecule that is insoluble in water, serves as a source of stored energy, is a component of cell membranes, and can provide insulation

    33.) NUCLEIC ACIDS - A macromolecule (DNA or RNA) composed of the elements of C, H, N, O, and P that carries genetic information.

    34.) PROTEINS- A macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; performs a variety of structural and regulatory functions for cells (e.g. enzymes).

    35.) AMINO ACIDS - The building blocks of proteins.


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #8

    36.) pH - The measure of the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a solution ranging from 0 (highly acidic) to 14 (highly alkaline) with a midpoint of 7 (neutral).

    37.) ENZYME - A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.

    38.) ACTIVE SITE - The area where the substrate and enzyme interact.

    39.) DENATURE - The process where the shape of an enzyme/protein is changed by environmental factors (e.g. high/low temperature and high/low pH).

    40.) ACTIVITATION ENERGY - The amount of energy needed for a reaction to start.


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #9

    41.) ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - Network of flattened membranes forming tunnels, have ribosomes embedded, produces proteins for exportation/transport

    42.) FLUID MOSAIC MODEL - The name of the complex of phospholipids, membrane proteins and cholesterol that are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.

    43.) MEMBRANE PROTEINS - Different types of organic compounds in the membrane to perform different functions such as transport of materials, identification of the cell type, receptors for recognizing substances, and enzymes to regulate reactions. Made up of long chains of amino acids.

    44.) PHOSPHOLIPIDS - Have a polar hydrophillic (water-loving) phosphate head and 2 nonpolar hydrophobic (water-fearing) fatty acid tails. They line up in a double layer (phospholipid bilayer). so that the heads face the outer and inner cell surfaces and the tails are sandwiched together in between.

    45.) MEMBRANE BOUND - Describes organelles in eukaryotic cells.


    Keystone Vocabulary - Set #10

    46.) HOMEOSTASIS - The process by which organisms maintain a stable internal environment.

    47.) SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE - Property of biological membranes that allows only certain substances to pass through them; the cell membrane and the mmebranes of organelles are selectively permeable 

    48.) VESICLE - Small membrane-bound spaces in the plasma membrane that transport macromolecules into and out of the cell.

    49.) HYDROPHOBIC - means "water repelling"

    50.) HYDROPHILIC - means "water loving"