Unit 4 – Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositions
Lesson 24: Adjectives
Adjective: a word that describes a noun. It can tell what kind, and it can also tell how many. An
adjective usually comes before the noun it describes.
When two or more adjectives describe the same noun, the order in which they appear follows a
pattern. Adjectives that describe number come before adjectives that describe size, shape, color, or other qualities.
Lesson 25: A, An, The
The special adjectives a, an, and the are called articles. These small words come before nouns. A and an refer to any person, place, or thing and the article the refers to a specific person, place, or thing.
Use a before a singular noun that begins with a consonant sound.
Use an before a singular noun that begins with a vowel sound.
Use the before both singular and plural nouns.
Lesson 26: Demonstrative Adjectives
Adjectives that can tell what kind or how many. Adjectives can also tell which one. Adjectives
that tell which one are called demonstrative adjectives.
This, that, these, and those are demonstrative adjectives. Use this and that before singular nouns.
Use these and those before plural nouns.
This and these refer to people, places, or things that are nearby. Do NOT use here after this or
That and those refer to people, places, or things that are farther away. Do NOT use there after
that or those.
Lesson 27: Comparing with Adjectives
Adjectives can compare people, places, and things. Adjectives that compare tell how things are
different from each other.
Add -er to most adjectives to compare two people, places, or things.
Add -est to most adjectives to compare more than two people, places, or things.
Sometimes the spelling of the adjective changes when -er or -est is added.
If an adjective ends in e, drop the e and add -er or -est.
If an adjective ends in a consonant and y, change the y to i and add -er or -est.
If an adjective ends in one vowel followed by a consonant, double the consonant and add -er or -est.
Lesson 28: Comparing with More and Most
The words more and most are often needed when comparing adjectives of two or more syllables.
Use more with adjectives when comparing two people, places, or things.
Use most with adjectives when comparing more than two people, places, or things.
Do NOT add -er or -est to an adjective when you use more or most to compare.
Lesson 29: Comparing with Good and Bad
The adjectives good and bad have special forms for comparing:
Good – better – best
Bad – worse – worst
Use better when comparing two people, places, or things.
Use best when comparing more than two.
Use worse when comparing two people, places, or things.
Use worst when comparing more than two.
Lesson 30: Adverbs
Adverb: a word that generally describes a verb. Adverbs describe verbs by telling how, when, or
where an action happens. Many adverbs end in -ly.
Lesson 31: Comparing with Adjectives
An adverb can compare two or more actions.
Add -er to most one-syllable adverbs to compare two actions.
Add -est to most one-syllable adverbs to compare more than two actions.
The words more and most can also be used with adverbs to compare. Use more and most with
most adverbs that have two or more syllables, including adverbs that end in -ly.
Use more with adverbs to compare two actions.
Use most with adverbs to compare more than two actions.
Do NOT add -er or -est to an adverb when you use more or most.
Lesson 32: Using Good and Well
The words good and well can sometimes be confusing.
Good is an adjective that describes a noun.
Well is usually an adverb that describes a verb.
Well is an adjective ONLY when it refers to someone’s health. When well refers to health, it
describes a noun.
Lesson 33: Negatives
A word that means “no” is called a negative. The words no, not, nothing, none, never, nowhere,
nobody, and no one are negatives.
Contractions with not, such as don’t, wasn’t, and aren’t, are also negatives.
Do NOT use two negatives together in a sentence. This kind of mistake is called a double
negative. To correct a sentence with a double negative, take out one negative or replace it with a word such as any, every, ever, anything, anywhere, anyone, or anybody.
Lesson 34: Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
Preposition: a word that shows how a noun or pronoun is connected to some other word in the
Some common prepositions: about, above, across, after, against, among, around, at, before,
behind, below, beside, by, down, during, for, from, in, inside, into, near, of, off, on, over,
through, to, under, until, and with.
Prepositional Phrase: a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or
pronoun. When a prepositional phrase comes at the beginning of the sentence, it is followed by a comma.