• Nature of Science

    S8.A.1.1.1            Distinguish between a scientific theory and an opinion, explaining how a theory is supported with

                                     evidence, or how new data/information may change existing theories and practices.
    S8.A.1.1.2            Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry and or technological practice 
    S8.A.1.1.3            Use evidence, such as observations or experimental results, to support inferences about a relationship.
    S8.A.1.1.4            Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. 

    S8.A.1.2.1            Describe the positive and negative, intended and unintended, effects of specific scientific results or

                                     technological developments e.g., air/space travel, genetic engineering, ...)

    S8.A.1.2.2            Identify environmental issues and explain their potential long-term health effects (e.g., pollution,

                                     pest controls, vaccinations).

    S8.A.1.2.3            Describe fundamental scientific or technological concepts that could solve practical problems

                                  (e.g., Newton's laws of motion, Mendelian genetics).

    S8.A.1.2.4            Explain societys standard of living in terms of technological advancements and how these advancements

                                  impact agriculture (e.g., transportation, processing, production, storage).

    S8.A.1.3.1            Use ratio to describe change (e.g., percents, parts per million, grams per cubic centimeter,

                                     mechanical advantage).

    S8.A.1.3.2            Use evidence, observations, or explanations to make inferences about change in systems over time

                                     (e.g., carrying capacity, succession, ...) and the variables affecting these changes.

    S8.A.1.3.3            Examine systems changing over time, identifying the possible variables causing this change, and drawing

                                     inferences about how these variables affect this change.

    S8.A.1.3.4            Given a scenario, explain how a dynamically changing environment provides for the sustainability of

                                     living systems.

    S8.A.2.1.1            Use evidence, observations, or a variety of scales (e.g., mass, distance, volume, temperature) to

                                     describe relationships.

    S8.A.2.1.2            Use space/time relationships, define concepts operationally, raise testable questions,

                                     or formulate hypotheses.

    S8.A.2.1.3            Design a controlled experiment by specifying how the independent variables will be manipulated, how the

                                     dependent variable will be measured, and which variables will be held constant.

    S8.A.2.1.4            Interpret data/observations; develop relationships among variables based on data/observations to

                                    design models as solutions.

    S8.A.2.1.5            Use evidence from investigations to clearly communicate and support conclusions.

    S8.A.2.1.6            Identify a design flaw in a simple technological system and devise possible working solutions.

    S8.A.2.2.1            Describe the appropriate use of instruments and scales to accurately and safely measure time, mass,

                                      distance, volume, or  temperature under a variety of conditions.

    S8.A.2.2.2            Apply appropriate measurement systems (e.g., time, mass, distance, volume, temperature) to record

                                       and interpret observations under varying conditions.

    S8.A.2.2.3            Describe ways technology (e.g., microscope, telescope, micrometer, hydraulics, barometer) extends

                                       and enhances human abilities for specific purposes.

    S8.A.3.1.1            Describe a system (e.g., watershed, circulatory system, heating system, agricultural system) as a group of

                                       related parts with specific roles that work together to achieve an observed result.

    S8.A.3.1.2            Explain the concept of order in a system [e.g., (first to last: manufacturing steps, trophic levels);

                                      (simple to complex: cell, tissue, organ, organ system)].

    S8.A.3.1.3            Distinguish among system inputs, system processes, system outputs, and feedback

                                      (e.g., physical, ecological, biological, informational).

    S8.A.3.1.4            Distinguish between open loop (e.g., energy flow, food web) and closed loop (e.g., materials in the nitrogen

                                      and carbon cycles, closed-switch) systems.

    S8.A.3.1.5            Explain how components of natural and human-made systems play different roles in a working system.

    S8.A.3.2.1            Describe how scientists use models to explore relationships in natural systems (e.g., an ecosystem,

                                      river system, the solar system).

    S8.A.3.2.2            Describe how engineers use models to develop new and improved technologies to solve problems.

    S8.A.3.2.3            Given a model showing simple cause- and-effect relationships in a natural system, predict results that can be

                                       used to test the assumptions in the model (e.g., photosynthesis, water cycle, diffusion)

    S8.A.3.3.1            Identify and describe patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in human-made systems

                                     (e.g., trusses, hub-and-spoke system in communications and transportation systems, ...)

    S8.A.3.3.2            Describe repeating structure patterns in nature (e.g., veins in a leaf, tree rings, crystals, water waves)

                                     or periodic patterns (e.g., daily, monthly, annually).

    S8.B.1.1.1            Describe the structures of living things that help them function effectively in specific ways

                                     (e.g., adaptations, characteristics).

    S8.B.1.1.2            Compare similarities and differences in internal structures of organisms (e.g., invertebrate/vertebrate, ...)

                                      and external structures (e.g., appendages, body segments, ...).

    S8.B.1.1.3            Apply knowledge of characteristic structures to identify or categorize organisms

                                      (i.e., plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and protista).

    S8.B.1.1.4            Identify the levels of organization from cell to organism and describe how specific structures (parts),

                                      which underlie larger systems, enable the system to function as a whole.

    S8.B.2.1.1            Explain how inherited structures or behaviors help organisms survive and reproduce in different


    S8.B.2.1.2            Explain how different adaptations in individuals of the same species may affect survivability

                                    or reproduction success.

    S8.B.2.1.3            Explain that mutations can alter a gene and are the original source of new variations.

    S8.B.2.1.4            Describe how selective breeding or biotechnology can change the genetic makeup of organisms.

    S8.B.2.1.5            Explain that adaptations are developed over long periods of time and are passed from one generation

                                      to another.

    S8.B.2.2.1            Identify and explain differences between inherited and acquired traits.

    S8.B.2.2.2            Recognize that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance, that there are dominant and recessive genes,

                                     and that traits are inherited.

    S8.B.3.1.1            Explain the flow of energy through an ecosystem (e.g., food chains, food webs).

    S8.B.3.1.2            Identify major biomes and describe abiotic and biotic components (e.g., abiotic: different soil types, air,

                                     water sunlight; biotic: soil microbes, decomposers).

    S8.B.3.1.3            Explain relationships among organisms (e.g., producers/consumers, predator/prey) in an ecosystem.

    S8.B.3.2.1            Use evidence to explain factors that affect changes in populations (e.g., deforestation, disease, land use,

                                     natural disaster,invasive species).

    S8.B.3.2.2            Use evidence to explain how diversity affects the ecological integrity of natural systems.

    S8.B.3.2.3            Describe the response of organisms to environmental changes (e.g., changes in climate, hibernation,

                                        migration, coloration) and  how those changes affect survival.

    S8.B.3.3.1            Explain how human activities may affect local, regional, and global environments.

    S8.B.3.3.2            Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs (i.e., energy, food, water,

                                        clothing, and shelter).

    S8.B.3.3.3            Describe how waste management affects the environment (e.g., recycling, composting, landfills,

                                        incineration, sewage treatment).

    S8.B.3.3.4            Explain the long-term effects of using integrated pest management (e.g., herbicides, natural predators,

                                       biogenetics) on the  environment.


    Physical Science

    S8.C.1.1.1            Explain the differences among elements, compounds, and mixtures.

    S8.C.1.1.2            Use characteristic physical or chemical properties to distinguish one substance from another

                                      (e.g., density, thermal expansion/contraction, freezing/melting points, streak test).

    S8.C.1.1.3            Identify and describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions.

    S8.C.2.1.1            Distinguish among forms of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, light, sound, nuclear)

                                         and sources of energy (i.e.,  renewable and nonrenewable energy)

    S8.C.2.1.2            Explain how energy is transferred from one place to another through convection, conduction, or radiation.

    S8.C.2.1.3            Describe how one form of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, light, sound, nuclear) can be

                                       converted into a different form of energy.

    S8.C.2.2.1            Describe the Sun as the major source of energy that impacts the environment.

    S8.C.2.2.2            Compare the time span of renewability for fossil fuels and the time span of renewability for alternative fuels.

    S8.C.2.2.3            Describe the waste (i.e., kind and quantity) derived from the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources

                                          and their potential impact on the environment.

    S8.C.3.1.1            Describe forces acting on objects (e.g., friction, gravity, balanced versus unbalanced).

    S8.C.3.1.2            Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.

    S8.C.3.1.3            Explain that mechanical advantage helps to do work (physics) by either changing a force or changing

                                          the direction of the applied force (e.g., simple machines, hydraulic systems).





    Earth Science

    S8.D.1.1.1            Explain the rock cycle as changes in the solid earth and rock types (igneous – granite, basalt, obsidian,

                                        pumice; sedimentary, limestone, sandstone, shale, coal; and metamorphic – slate, quartzite,...).

    S8.D.1.1.2            Describe natural processes that change Earth’s surface (e.g., landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes,

                                        mountain building, new land being formed, weathering, erosion, ...)

    S8.D.1.1.3            Identify soil types (i.e., humus, topsoil, subsoil, loam, loess, and parent material) and their characteristics

                                       (i.e., particle size, porosity, and permeability) found in different biomes ...

    S8.D.1.1.4            Explain how fossils provide evidence about plants and animals that once lived throughout Pennsylvania's

                                       history (e.g., fossils provide evidence of different environments).

    S8.D.1.2.1            Describe a product's transformation process from production to consumption (e.g., prospecting,

                                      propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating, converting, distributing, disposing) and
                                      explain the processes' potential impacts on Earth's resources

    S8.D.1.2.2            Describe potential impacts of human-made processes (e.g., manufacturing, agriculture, transportation) on

                                         Earths resources, both nonliving (i.e., air, water, ...) and living (i.e., plants and animals).

    S8.D.1.3.1            Describe the water cycle and the physical processes on which it depends (i.e., evaporation, condensation,

                                        precipitation, transpiration, runoff, infiltration, energy inputs, and phase changes).

    S8.D.1.3.2            Compare and contrast characteristics of freshwater and saltwater systems on the basis of their physical

                                       characteristics (i.e., composition, density, and electrical conductivity)
                                       and their use as natural resources.

    S8.D.1.3.3            Distinguish among different water systems (e.g., wetland systems, ocean systems, river systems,

                                      watersheds) and describe their relationships to each other as well as to landforms.

    S8.D.1.3.4            Identify the physical characteristics of a stream and how these characteristics determine the types of

                                      organisms found within the stream environment (e.g., biological diversity, ...

    S8.D.2.1.1            Explain the impact of water systems on the local weather or the climate of a region (e.g., lake effect snow,

                                       land/ocean breezes).

    S8.D.2.1.2            Identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence regional weather and climate.

    S8.D.2.1.3            Identify how cloud types, wind directions, and barometric pressure changes are associated with

                                      weather patterns in different regions of the country.

    S8.D.3.1.1           Describe patterns of Earth's movements (ie. rotation and revolution) in relation to the moon and sun

                                     (ie. phases, eclipses, and tides) 

    S8.D.3.1.2            Describe the role of gravity as the force that governs the movement of the solar system and universe.

    S8.D.3.1.3            Compare and contrast characteristics of celestial bodies found in the solar system (e.g. planets, moons,

                                      meteors, inner and outer planets).